Hanza Alliance

The Hanza Alliance (German: die Hanse) was an alliance of merchants in the Middle Ages, operating in Northern Europe and in the Baltic region on the 13-17. century.

In the Light of the Hanza Alliance. The Hanza federation founded the medieval urban culture in Northern Europe and reported that "urban air is free".

The Alliance, which lasted almost half a thousand years, had an impact on the economy, politics and culture across the Baltic region. The development of trade and cities and the advance of German merchants towards the east along the coasts of the Baltic Sea were a precondition for the establishment of the Hanza alliance. The symbolic start of the period was 1161 when the city of Lübeck, the center of the alliance, was restored. At first, the term Hanza meant an alliance of traders living abroad. By the end of the 13th century, the Hansa of the cities became stronger - a strong alliance of trading towns, which shared a common political principle.

His political power, coupled with his economic strength, was dependent on the economy of many of the countries of northern Europe, including the German Knights' Order. As he had huge sums of money, he held a large number of mercenary balloons and drove the King of Denmark in several wars. The German knighthood actively supported and defended the alliance because in the 13th century, when it began to incorporate the East-Baltic territories, it provided significant subsidies on the one hand because it was not under direct unity, like the order of the Slytherins.

The Hanza-cities were in the territory of today's Germany, Poland, the Netherlands, Russia, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Latvia and Estonia. The western boundary of the Hanza trading region is London and Bruges, the eastern border of Novgorod, and in the north by Bergen. Its central city is Lübeck, where all the ships on the east-west trade routes are laid.

The Hanza cities were able to exert economic pressure on other cities, ranging from embargo to direct war to their tools. By the second half of the 14th century, the Hanza Alliance became unlimited economic power in Northern Europe. The Baltic Sea was the "inner seas" of the Alliance. The Hanza traders were mainly traded between two interdependent territories. Manufacturing and crafts were developed in Flanders and Rhine-Westphalia, while Eastern Europe and Russia provided enough raw material and food. There was also a lengthy internal struggle between the Hanza cities for the control of Novgorod, as they were traded through the city throughout the Russian Empire. The Hanza traders had a constant station in the 13th century jointly in Novgorod. It was called Peter's Court (or Peterhof) and included traders' homes, warehouses, mills, breweries and temples.
According to the law, every Hanza trader could travel to Novgorod once a year, and he could bring goods worth up to 1000 silver. In the 15th century, the Hanza Alliance was able to prohibit trading with Russia for non-Alliance traders. The management of the Novgorod Hanza trade station has been transferred to three other cities - Riga, Tartu and Tallinn.

The Novgorod Hanza trade station was closed in 1494. Although trade relations with Russia have evolved on other routes, this year marks the beginning of the decline of the Hanza alliance. The League lost its significance in the 16th century, primarily because of the strengthening of England, Denmark, but mainly of the Netherlands.

At the last Hanza meeting in 1669, besides Lübeck, only five other cities were represented (220 cities were members of the Hanza federation). After the meeting, the Alliance ceased. The era of independent states began with this.